Wildlife management is part of the greater movement for conservation of entire native fauna and flora along sound biological principles (Robinson and Bolen, 1999). Conservation with respect to wildlife management, therefore, has the connotation of sustained-yield use of natural resources as against the principle of protection and preservation that locks the natural resources from use.
Until 1960s, wildlife management primarily meant ‘game management,’ was targeted for the management of game birds and animals, primarily hunted for sports, involving several stakeholders. Management and regulation of wildlife, therefore, is not only the responsibility of the state but also that of private landowners. Management involves manipulation of wildlife population—depopulation in case of overpopulation and restoration of population size to a viable limit—lowering the risk of species extinction and balancing species richness. Today, wildlife management is not only looking at the prospect of economic benefits of few hunters, but has embraced ethical and social (enhanced respect for nature, opposition to killing, spiritual and emotional interests of non-hunters) issues concerning wider public. Utilitarian attitude has been replaced with concerns for nongame species as well, thereby encompassing holistic management approach for all species. Wildlifers today require research and management skills which enable them to address wide range of social, economic, and ecological issues. Wildlife managers, therefore, are challenged with the need to know the ecological knowledge of predator-prey relationship, death and birth, population dynamics, competition, dispersal and migration, interactions between species, animal behaviors, and effect of exotic among others. As stated earlier, it is however important to understand that wildlife management involves manipulation of population in specific habitat.
It would be very difficult to accommodate more discussion on the techniques and strategies used in wildlife management in this module here. Therefore, the students are advised to contact the concerned person to look for further information.