Wild Life - Biogeographic regions


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Biogeographic regions


An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeogrpahic (a biogeography is the study of the distribution of biodiversity over space and time) division of the earth's surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns of plants and animals (c.f. Wikipedia). It represent large areas of the earth's surface where plants and animals developed in relative isolation over long periods of time, and are separated from one another by geologic features, such as oceans, deserts, or high mountain ranges, that formed barriers to plant and animal migration. The patterns of plant and animal distribution in the world's ecozones are shaped by the process of plate tectonic (a theory of geology that has been developed to explain the observed evidence for large scale motions of the Earth's lithosphere), which has redistributed the world's land masses over geological history. The WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) divides the world into eight ecozones viz.

 These ecozones are further divided into bioregions (geographic clusters of ecoregions that may span several habitat types, but have strong biogeographic affinities, particularly at taxonomic levels higher than the species level (genus, family). Bhutan’s biodiversity richness is attributed to its geographical location nestled in the eastern Himalayan front that connects the palearctic realm in the north with the Indomalayan realm in the south (c.f. Wangchuk et al., 2004).