Introduction to Bhutanese Farming System - Syllabus and Unit Content

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Syllabus and Unit Content


Academic Session :
Year 1 Semester 1
Teacher :
Samdrup Rigyal
Teacher’s email address :
Number of class hours :
Module Synopsis:
An extension worker is basically a communicator. The communication skill on the part of the extension worker is the basis of all extension activity. Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intended to transmit. Studying the communication process is important to create an understanding and integrate members of the society from all sides. Effective written communication and presentation skills are prerequisites for a successful extension worker.
The problems of developing countries have increased the significance of better understanding development communication, communication research and management. Delivery of efficient extension services increasingly demand field workers to demonstrate high skills in facilitation, take lead roles in group discussion, conflict management, understanding of the basic processes of cognitive psychology, counselling and psychotherapy. The important role played by ICT in extension is to be clearly understood and know how the various ICT tools are usefully engaged in rural development. Equally important is to learn the relationships of media, society and culture and the importance of cross-cultural communications.
This module has 14 main topics including all of the topics mentioned above and the optional sub-modules on the basics of media production.   
Module Aims:This module aims to provide students the understanding of the roles of communication in extension and further comprehend development communication, mass media, conflict, facilitation and psychological analysis as prerequisites for addressing the greater challenges of evolving problems in extension and rural development.
Module Learning Outcomes :
·        Identify and explain the roles of communication elements
·        Compare models of communication and applications in the right context
·        Apply communication models to agriculture development approaches
·        Conduct communication planning
·        Design communication programmes
·        Implement, monitor and evaluate communication programmes
·        Differentiate non development communication and development communication
·        Explain objectives of development communication
·        Plan development communication
·        Identify types of reports
·        Write professional letters and reports
·        Make effective presentations
·        Deliver clear messages to the audiences during presentations
·        Explain the significance of psychology in extension
·        Identify basic processes of thinking and thoughts
·        Explain the roles of a facilitator
·        Describe the techniques of facilitation
·        Explain the many facets of conflicts
·        Build the strategies for conflict management
·        Explain the benefits of counselling and psychotherapy
·        Explain the roles played by ICT in rural development
·        Identify the types of mass media and their roles
·        Describe the relationships of media, society and culture
·        Demonstrate and explain the steps of media productions (optional sub-modules on video and photography)
Module Learning Resources:
1.                  Anderson, J.R. (1976). Language, Memory and Thought. NJ: Erlbaum.
2.                  Bigdon, C. & Korf, B. (2004). The role of development aid in conflict transformation: facilitating empowerment processes and community development. In A. Austin, M. Fischer and N. Ropers, eds. Transforming ethnopolitical conflict - The Berghof Handbook, pp. 341 - 370. Wiesbaden, Germany, VS Verlag.
3.                  Biggs, S. D., (1989). A Multiple Source of Innovation Model of Agricultural Research and Technology Promotion. Agricultural Administration (Research and Extension) Network Paper 6. London: Overseas Development Institute (ODI), ii + 71 pp.
4.                  Brown, J., Lewis, R.B. and Harcleroad, F.F. (1985). AV Instruction: Technology, Media and Methods (Sixth Edition). Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 528 pp.
5.                  Fisher, S., Abdi, D.I., Ludin, J., Smith, R., Williams, S. & Williams, S. (2000). Working with conflict: skills and strategies for action. Responding to conflict. London, Zed Books.
6.                  Garforth, C. (n.d.). Communication Models in Extension Research. UK: (AERDD, DC 25, 845). 12 pp.
7.                  Garforth, C., (1985). Media in Education and Development: Mass Media and Communication Technology. A Discussion Paper at the Twentieth AERDC Conference. UK: (AERDD, DC 19,925). p.175 - 179.
8.                  Gibaldi, J. (2000). Modern Language Association of America (MLA) Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (Fifth Edition). New Delhi: East-West Press Pvt. Ltd. 332 pp.
9.                  Gibson, J.J. (1966). The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. Boston.
10.              Hornik, R. C. (1988). Development Communication: Information, Agriculture and Nutrition in the Third World. New York: Longman Inc, xv + 182 pp.
11.              Hornik, R. C., Mayo, J.K. and McAnany, E.G. (n.d.). The Mass Media in Rural Education. UK: (AERDD, DC 15,987). pp 69-91.
12.              Langford, M. (1978). The Step by Step Guide to Photography: A complete Manual. Italy: Ebury Press. 223 pp.
13.              McCarthy, P. and Hatcher, C. (2002). Presentation Skills: The essential guide for students. Singapore: Sage Publications Ltd. 267 pp.
14.              McLuhan, M., (1987). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, ARK edition. Great Britain: Cox & Wyman Ltd., vii + 359 pp.
15.              McQuail, D. (1994). Mass Communication Theory: An introduction (Third Edition). Wiltshire, Great Britain: Sage Publications. 416 pp.
16.              Means, K. and Josayma, C. (2002). Community-based Forest Resource Conflict Management (Volume 1 & 2). Rome: FAO. 321 pp.
17.              Mercado, C.M. (1991). Development Communication Revisited. Manila: Asia and Pacific for DTCP, UNDP. 20 pp.
18.              Mercado, C.M. (1999). Conducting and Managing Communication Survey Research. Manila: DCAAP. 244 pp.
19.              Mercado, C.M. (2000). Communication Management in the New Millennium. Manila: DCAAP. 73 pp.
20.              Mody, B. (1991). Designing Messages for Development Communication: An Audience Participation-Based Approach. New Delhi: Sage Publications India Pvt. Ltd., 212 pp.
21.              Pain, A. et al. (1993). The Development and Dissemination of Appropriate Extension Material: Preliminary Result from a Four-District Survey. RGOB Approved Version, Thimphu, Bhutan: Ministry of Agriculture, RGOB, v + 110 pp.
22.              Pearson, J. (1983). Interpersonal Communication. Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foreman and Company.
23.              Pruitt, D. & Rubin, J. (1986). Social conflict: escalation, stalemate, and settlement. New York, Random House.
24.              Rao, D.R. and Sontakki, B.S. (2004). Information and Communication Technologies for Agriculture and Rural Development. Hyderabad, India: NAARM. 254 pp.
25.              RNR ESP (1999). Report of the Consultant Video Producer. Thimphu: MOA. 84 pp.
26.              Roling, N., (July 1971). Communication, a Key to Success in Extension. Draft for SPAN. (DC 1,513), 8 pp.
27.              Rosser, M., (1987). Media in Education and Development: Communication and Agricultural Development. UK: (AERDD, DC 0528), 74-79.
28.              Sandhu, A.S. (1993). Textbook on Agricultural Communication: Process and Methods. New Delhi: Raju Primlani for Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, xiv + 213 pp.
29.              Schramm, W., (1964). Mass media and National Development: The Role of Information in the Developing Countries.  California, USA: Stanford University Press and UNESCO, Paris, xiv + 333 pp.
30.              van den Ban, A.W. and H. S. Hawkins, (1988).  Agricultural Extension (Modified English Edition). New York: Longman Scientific & Technical, xi + 328 pp.
31.              Vilanilam, J.V. (2000). More Effective Communication: A Manual for Professionals. New Delhi: Response Books, Sage Publications, India, Pvt. Ltd. 238 pp.
Web resources
Prior Learning :
Teaching and Learning
The Module consists of 120 hours of teaching learning. A” Learner centred” approach to teaching and learning is adopted and is achieved through both theory (30%), hands-on practical ( 40%) and self study ( 30%). Theory inputs include classroom lectures. Practical includes farm practical as well as field-based activities through block weeks, block days and study visits.

Assessment Overview:
Assessment Deliverable
Delivery Date
Continuous assessment
written tests
Assignment and
(10 %)
Final assessment
written Exam
practical exam