Introduction to Bhutanese Farming System - Module Overview

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Module Overview


Academic Session :
Year 4 Semester 1
Teacher :
Samdrup Rigyal
Teacher’s email address :
Number of class hours :
Module Synopsis:
Extension plays key roles in developing and improving the livelihoods of farmers. It provides wide range of services including assistance to local governments to facilitate development processes. The extension staff based in the gewogs have direct contact with farmers where they provide access to services required by them. 
The services provided by extension include advices, farm inputs, dissemination of improved production technologies, management practices, communication & networking services and capacity building activities / trainings. Planning, implementing, monitoring, evaluating and reporting on all extension activities including on-farm trials and demonstrations are important tasks of the extension workers. Extension workers are also required to frequently visit households, conduct meetings and discussions, maintain daily extension diary, encourage farmers’ group formation, etc.
This module, based on the job analysis of the extension workers has 9 topics. The topics identify the major approaches and methods used in the delivery of effective extension services. It lays the foundation on gender issues in extension besides describing farmer information needs assessments, training, programme planning, monitoring and evaluation of extension programmes. 
Module Aims:This module aims to provide students the understanding of the roles of agricultural extension in rural development with emphasis on practices of extension implementation in Bhutan. The learning of various extension approaches and methods will enable future extension workers to efficiently interact with the farming community, initiate capacity development, undertake planning, monitoring and evaluation of programmes.
Module Learning Outcomes :
  • Explain the conditions evolving agricultural extension
  • Describe the trends of agricultural extension development in Bhutan
  • Identify various interpretations of extension
  • Describe various extension approaches adopted abroad
  • Plan effective extension programmes
  • Identify extension organisational structure and design
  • Explain organisation and management structure of Ministry of Agriculture
  • Conduct gender analysis in agriculture
  • Identify different extension methods to be deployed
  • Classify adopter categories among farmers
  • Plan, implement, monitor and evaluate different demonstrations
  • Describe farmers’ problems seen from sustainable livelihood perspectives
  • Conduct farmer information needs assessments
  • Plan farmer responsive extension programmes
  • Explain principles of adult learning
  • Organise and conduct farmers’ training programmes
  • Monitor and evaluate extension programmes
  • Explain elements of private extension systems
  • Identify roles and benefits of non-governmental organisations
Module Learning Resources:
1.                  Adams, M. E. (1982). Agricultural Extension in Developing Countries. Singapore: Longman Group Ltd, xii + 108 pp.
2.                  Agriculture, Ministry of, (MOA), (1995). Technical Annex to The National Extension Policy. Thimphu: MOA, Royal Government of Bhutan, 14.5 pp.
3.                  Agriculture, Ministry of, (MOA), (1995). The National Extension Policy. Thimphu: MOA, Royal Government of Bhutan, 9 pp.
4.                  Agriculture, Ministry of, (MOA), (2006). DRAFT National Extension Policy 2006. Thimphu: MOA, Royal Government of Bhutan. 12 pp.
5.                  Agriculture, Ministry of. (1999). Agricultural Extension Manual. Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Extension: Dhaka. 110 pp.
6.                  Albrecht, H., Bergmann, H., Diederich, G. et al (1989). Rural Development Series: Agricultural Extension (Vol. 1), Basic Concepts and Methods. BMZ: Germany. 276 pp.
7.                  Arnon, I., (1968), Organisation and Administration of Agricultural Research. Galliard Ltd., Great Yarmouth, Great Britain: Elsevier Publishing Company Ltd., xii + 342 pp.
8.                  ____________ (1989), Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer.  University Press, Cambridge, Great Britain: Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd., xv + 841 pp.
9.                  Axin, G. H. (1988). Guide on Alternative Extension Approaches. FAO: Rome . 148 pp.
10.             Biggs, S. D., (1989), A Multiple Source of Innovation Model of Agricultural Research and Technology Promotion. Agricultural Administration (Research and Extension) Network Paper 6. London: Overseas Development Institute (ODI), ii + 71 pp.
11.             Bolliger, E., Reinhard, P. and Zellweger, T. (n.d.). Agricultural Extension: Guidelines for Extension Worker in Rural Areas. GTZ: Germany. D 9 pp.
12.             Chambers, R., (1997), Whose Reality Counts?: Putting the First Last. The Bath Press, Bath, Great Britain: Intermediate Technology Publications, xx + 297 pp.
13.             Garforth, C., (1985), Media in Education and Development: Mass Media and Communication Technology. A Discussion Paper at the Twentieth AERDC Conference. UK: (AERDD, DC 19,925), p.175 - 179.
14.             Howell, J. (1988).  Training and Visit Extension In Practice: Agricultural Administration (Research and Extension) Network, Occasional Paper 8. London: Overseas Development Institute (ODI), 107 pp.
15.             Leonard, David, K., (1985), Reaching the Peasant Farmer: Organisation Theory and Practice in Kenya. The University of Chicago Press, USA: Midway Reprint, xxi + 297 pp.
16.             Mac Donald, A. L., (1976), Agricultural Technology in Developing Countries: Social Factors Related to the Use of Modern Techniques in two Rural Areas in Peru. Belgium: Rotterdam University Press, xv + 236 pp.
17.             Oaklet, P. and Garforth, C. (1985). Guide to Extension Training. FAO: Rome. 144 pp.
18.             Rao, R., Sontakki, B.S. (2004). Information and Communication Technology for Agriculture and Rural Development. Hyderabad, India: NAARM. 254 pp.
19.             Rogers, Everette M., (1995), Diffusion of Innovations. (Fourth Edition). New York: The Free Press, A Division of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., xvii + 519 pp.
20.             Schramm, W., (1964), Mass media and National Development: The Role of Information in the Developing Countries. California, USA: Stanford University Press and UNESCO, Paris, xiv + 333 pp.
21.             Roling, N. (1988), Extension Science: Information Systems in Agricultural Development.  Cambridge, Great Britain: Cambridge University Press, x + 233 pp. 
22.             Shekhara, P. C. (2001). Private Extension in India: Indian Experiences. Hyderabad, India: MANAGE.153 pp.
23.             Shekhara, P. C. (2001). Private Extension in India: Myths, Realitiers, Apprehensions and Approaches. Hyderabad, India: MANAGE.153 pp.
24.             Sundaram, K. V., Moni, M., Jha, M.M. (2004). Natural Resources Management and Livelihood Security. Concept Publishing Comopany: New Delhi. 575 pp.
25.             Swanson, B. E. (1984). Agricultural Extension: A Reference Manual (Second Edition). FAO: Rome. 262 pp.
26.             Swanson, B. E., Bentz, R. P., Sofranko, A. J. (1997). Improving Agricultural Extension: A  Reference Manual. FAO: Rome. 220 pp.
27.             van den Ban, A.W. and H. S. Hawkins, (1988). Agricultural Extension, (Modified English Edition). New York: Longman Scientific & Technical, xi + 328 pp.
Web resources
Prior Learning :
Teaching and Learning
The Module consists of 60 hours of teaching learning. A” Learner centred” approach to teaching and learning is adopted and is achieved through both theory (30%), hands-on practical ( 40%) and self study ( 30%). Theory inputs include classroom lectures. Practical includes farm practical as well as field-based activities through block weeks, block days and study visits.

Assessment Overview:
Assessment Deliverable
Delivery Date
Continuous assessment
written tests
Assignment and
(10 %)
Final assessment
written Exam
practical exam